Discovering the Many Different Types of Arthritis

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Arthritis

 

Believe it or not there are actually over 100 various types of the diseases and conditions which are classified as arthritic.

The most typical of these to be found in people is osteoarthritis which affects around 27 million Americans alone.

Coming up for a close second are rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and gout.

The actual meaning of the word arthritis is inflammation in a joint. This inflammation is a natural reaction to use or injury and will often include swelling, pain and stiffness.

In some cases, or types of arthritis, this inflammation also produces degeneration and deformity in the joint. Inside a joint where two or more bones come together there is a covering with smooth spongy material called cartilage.

This cartilage allows the joints to move without pain. There is also a slippery fluid called synovial fluid that also helps to reduce friction.

When arthritis happens in a joint it becomes inflamed, painful, stiff and sometimes individuals have difficulty moving. Arthritis can also affect other parts of the body such as the skin, internal organs and eyes.

The exact cause may not be known for most of the different types of arthritis but researchers have identified several risk factors.

A risk factor is the behavior or traits of an individual which increases their chance of developing the disease.

Risk factors for arthritis include obesity (being overweight puts additional stress on the joints), age (the risk increases with age), gender (arthritis appears to occur more frequently in women than men), and work factors (repetitive movement, heavy lifting or frequent injury can lead to arthritic changes).

Arthritis affects approximately 70 million Americans. Or, put another way, it affects approximately 1 out of every three people. It is a major cause of lost work and disability.

It can affect people of all ages but is most common older adults. Diagnosis is often accomplished through thorough medical evaluation and history, physical exam, blood tests and imaging studies.

The goal of treatment is to provide relief from pain, increased mobility in the joints and increased strain around the joints. Physicians may recommend medication, hot or cold compresses, exercise, joint protection or surgery.

With early diagnosis most types are managed well and pain and disability is minimized. Although it cannot be prevented there are steps which will help reduce your risk or prevent permanent joint damage.

By maintaining a healthy weight, exercising, eating a healthy diet and protecting your joints at work you reduce your risk of developing arthritis and prevent major joint deformity.

Below is a list of the known arthritic conditions according to the arthritis foundation:

Achilles tendinitis

Achondroplasia

Acromegalic arthropathy

Adhesive capsulitis

Adult onset Still’s disease

Ankylosing spondylitis

Anserine bursitis

Avascular necrosis

Behcet’s syndrome

Bicipital tendinitis

Blount’s disease

Brucellar spondylitis

Bursitis

Calcaneal bursitis

Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD)

Crystal deposition disease

Caplan’s syndrome

Carpal tunnel syndrome

Chondrocalcinosis

Chondromalacia patellae

Chronic synovitis

Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis

Churg-Strauss syndrome

Cogan’s syndrome

Corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis

Costosternal syndrome

CREST syndrome

Cryoglobulinemia

Degenerative joint disease

Dermatomyositis

Diabetic finger sclerosis

Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH)

Discitis

Discoid lupus erythematosus

Drug-induced lupus

Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy

Dupuytren’s contracture

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome

Enteropathic arthritis

Epicondylitis

Erosive inflammatory osteoarthritis

Exercise-induced compartment syndrome

Fabry’s disease

Familial Mediterranean fever

Farber’s lipogranulomatosis

Felty’s syndrome

Fibromyalgia

Fifth’s disease

Flat feet

Foreign body synovitis

Freiberg’s disease

Fungal arthritis

Gaucher’s disease

Giant cell arteritis

Gonococcal arthritis

Goodpasture’s syndrome

Gout

Granulomatous arteritis

Hemarthrosis

Hemochromatosis

Henoch-Schonlein purpura

Hepatitis B surface antigen disease

Hip dysplasia

Hurler syndrome

Hypermobility syndrome

Hypersensitivity vasculitis

Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy

Immune complex disease

Impingement syndrome

Jaccoud’s arthropathy

Juvenile ankylosing spondylitis

Juvenile dermatomyositis

Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

Kawasaki disease

Kienbock’s disease

Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

Linear scleroderma

Lipoid dermatoarthritis

Lofgren’s syndrome

Lyme disease

Malignant synovioma

Marfan’s syndrome

Medial plica syndrome

Metastatic carcinomatous arthritis

Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD)

Mixed cryoglobulinemia

Mucopolysaccharidosis

Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis

Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia

Mycoplasmal arthritis

Myofascial pain syndrome

Neonatal lupus

Neuropathic arthropathy

Nodular panniculitis

Ochronosis

Olecranon bursitis

Osgood-Schlatter’s disease

Osteoarthritis

Osteochondromatosis

Osteogenesis imperfecta

Osteomalacia

Osteomyelitis

Osteonecrosis

Osteoporosis

Overlap syndrome

Pachydermoperiostosis Paget’s disease of bone

Palindromic rheumatism

Patellofemoral pain syndrome

Pellegrini-Stieda syndrome

Pigmented villonodular synovitis

Piriformis syndrome

Plantar fasciitis

Polyarteritis nodos

Polymyalgia rheumatica

Polymyositis

Popliteal cysts

Posterior tibial tendinitis

Pott’s disease

Prepatellar bursitis

Prosthetic joint infectio

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum

Psoriatic arthritis

Raynaud’s phenomenon

Reactive arthritis/Reiter’s syndrome

Reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome

Relapsing polychondritis

Retrocalcaneal bursitis

Rheumatic fever

Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid vasculitis

Rotator cuff tendinitis

Sacroiliitis

Salmonella osteomyelitis

Sarcoidosis

Saturnine gout

Scheuermann’s osteochondritis

Scleroderma

Septic arthritis

Seronegative arthritis

Shigella arthritis

Shoulder-hand syndrome

Sickle cell arthropathy

Sjogren’s syndrome

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis

Spinal stenosis

Spondylolysis

Staphylococcus arthritis

Stickler syndrome

Subacute cutaneous lupus

Sweet’s syndrome

Sydenham’s chorea

Syphilitic arthritis

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

Takayasu’s arteritis

Tarsal tunnel syndrome

Tennis elbow

Tietse’s syndrome

Transient osteoporosis

Traumatic arthritis

Trochanteric bursitis

Tuberculosis arthritis

Arthritis of Ulcerative colitis

Undifferentiated connective tissue syndrome (UCTS)

Urticarial vasculitis

Viral arthritis

Wegener’s granulomatosis

Whipple’s disease

Wilson’s disease

Yersinial arthritis

The Symptoms of Arthritis

Everyone has aches and pains, especially as we age. So what differentiates an ache or pain that should be evaluated by your doctor and that which you can wait out?

Any joint pain that is associated with arthritis does not disappear with a couple of days of rest. Most aches and pains are fleeting or athletic injuries show progressive healing process while pain associated with an arthritic condition is more chronic.

Osteoarthritis is the most common diagnosis of arthritis in the world today. Progressive stiffness without any chills, noticeable swelling or fever is usually associated with the gradual onset of osteoarthritis in individuals who are older than 40 or 50 years old.

On the other hand, painful swelling, inflammation and stiffness, especially upon awakening, can be the signs of rheumatoid arthritis.

Gout is an arthritic condition caused by the build up of uric acid in the blood. This causes urate crystals to form in a joint, most commonly the big toe.

A flare-up of gout often happens overnight and quickly. Children who suffer from intermittent fever, loss of appetite, weight loss and a blotchy rash may be exhibiting the symptoms of a type of rheumatoid arthritis.

As you can see there are multiple different types of symptoms that accompany arthritis because there are multiple different types of arthritic conditions. However, the one commonality between these diagnoses and symptoms is pain and stiffness.

In some individuals this will be accompanied by swelling, redness and warmth, in others it will be accompanied by fever and still others will be accompanied by severe pain or blotchy rashes over the body.

Some symptoms of arthritis are more severe after exercise but more commonly arthritic conditions become more stiff and painful when the individual has been resting for a period of time.

This means that first thing in the morning, getting up from the dinner table or after resting in the evening on the couch, stiffness and pain will be greater.

Symptoms also include limited function of the joints that is related to the stiffness and pain.

Arthritis is considered a rheumatic disease which is a nonspecific term for a medical condition which affects the joints and connective tissue.

This means that some arthritic conditions will also affect connective tissue in the internal organs as well as the joints. This results in fever, glandular swelling, fatigue, weight loss and abnormalities in the lungs, heart or kidneys.

Many of the arthritic conditions involve the breakdown of cartilage which protects the joints and allows for smooth motion. In some cases it is the result of an auto immune disease in which the body attacks itself. In other conditions it is a general “wear and tear”, infection by bacteria or viruses or the result of a broken bone.

Researchers have identified several risk factors for individuals to develop painful joints which include being overweight, a previously injured joint, use of joints in repetitive action such as baseball players, ballet dancers and construction workers, age and depending upon the condition, gender.

Your physician will include a specific and thorough medical history as well as physical examination, blood tests and imaging studies to differentiate the exact cause of the joint pain.

In many cases you will be referred to a rheumatologist who is a doctor specializing in the treatment of connective tissue diseases.

This specialist will be able to accurately diagnose your condition and make specific recommendations for your individual case.

Like many other diseases, arthritic conditions respond well to early diagnosis and treatment.

Many arthritic conditions are also progressive, which means that they continue to get worse as time goes on.

The earlier that a diagnosis and accurate treatment recommendations have been made the better the chance there is for reduced deformity of the joints and improved overall function for the individual.

Sources:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Risk Factors
www.cdc.gov/arthritis/basics/risk_factors.htm

Arthritis Foundation: Types of Arthritis
www.arthritis.org/types-arthritis.php

University of Maryland Medical Center: Osteoarthritis
www.umm.edu/patiented/artices/what_test_will_confirm_diagnosis_of_osteoarthritis_000035_6.htm

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